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FAQ: is it possible that jade is not a basic mutation but a crossing-over between marbled and cinnamon?

FAQ: is it possible that jade is not a basic mutation but a crossing-over between marbled and cinnamon?

No, it is not. For a start marbled is an autosomal mutation and cinnamon a Sex-Linked mutation. That means that these mutations are on different chromosomes. So a crossing-over between them is not possible.

Other question is if jade is a normal combination of cinnamon and marbled? So a cinnamon marbled green bird?

Again no, we examined the feathers and we are sure it has nothing to do with cinnamon. But if you are still doubting, you can easily test it yourself. If jade is a cinnamon marbled green you can combine a jade (cinnamon marbled) male with a green hen. Then the offspring should be cinnamon green/marbled hens  and green/cinnamon/marbled males. Breeders who have these jades can confirm this is not the case.

So as far as we know, jade is a basic mutation.

Studienamiddag satinet-, agaat-, bruin- en phaeomutant

Op verzoek van diverse keurmeesters organiseren we op 16 maart 2019 een infonamiddag voor de keurmeesters kanaries, exoten en inlandse vogels van KBOF en AOB over de satinet-, agaat-, bruin- en phaeomutanten.

Verdere info volgt later.


FAQ: blue x blue = ??? green??

In 2017 I was contacted by the owners of ‘Aviario Gonzalez Pradas’. They had a pair of two blue Agapornis personatus. In the first nest there were to their surprise three blue and two green chicks. When they announced this on the internet, almost everybody was laughing. For most breeders this is impossible.

And indeed in 99% of all cases the offspring of blue x blue will be blue, but there are some situation where the progeny phenotypes do not match the Mendelian principles. We know now that genetics is a lot more complicated than Mendel’s laws (genes and alleles), some cases of genetic inheritance can be far more complex than simple Mendelian inheritance.

So this is indeed possible. It is rare but it is possible. It is no joke!!

We are working on this, we collected DNA from these birds and we are hoping to get more answers in the future. As soon as we have more info available, you will read it all in the BVA-International magazine.

*Dominant yellow* an update!

In April 2018 we published on our web blog that a South African breeder kept records of his *dominant yellow* Agapornis fischeri and he had the impression that the inheritance is Sex-Linked incomplete dominant. We asked our visitors to do some extra test matings in order to confirm / debounce this theory.

see post

We also checked the pedigree of several *dominant yellow* Agapornis fischeri and the recent breeding outcomes of the test matings.
This revealed that the *dominant yellow* Agapornis fischeri (the onces we have here in our collections) doesn’t have a SL incomplete dominant inheritance.
So the birds in Willie’s aviary are probably a different mutation.

FAQ: non pied youngsters from dominant pied x dominant pied

FAQ: normal green – non pied – youngsters from a couple dominant pied x dominant pied, is this possible?

Of course it is.

Since a bird has two genes for dominant pied, it can be single factored (SF) dominant pied (only one gene of the pair is mutated) or it can be double factored (both genes of the pair are mutated). If we combine SF dominant pied x SF dominant pied, we have 25% probability of normal – non pied – youngsters. 50% probability of SF dominant pied and 25% probability of DF dominant pied.

Keep in mind that, there is no visual difference in DF or SF dominant pied birds.

FAQ: are combinations of alleles of the same gene on the Z chromosome only males?

FAQ: are combinations of alleles of the same gene on the Z chromosome only males? (PallidIno or PaleIno or PalePallid)

Indeed, since it are both alleles of the same gene, and only a male has two Z chromosomes, it can only be a male. Females only have one Z chromosome. So there are no female PallidIno birds.

FAQ: How can we differentiate (the hybrid) sable phenotypes and opaline in blue Agapornis fischeri?

FAQ: How can we differentiate (the hybrid) sable phenotypes and opaline in blue Agapornis fischeri?

It is good that you realise that the ‘sable’ phenotypes are indeed a selection type on hybrids. ‘Sable’ is nothing else than the blue version of a ‘redhead’ Agapornis fischeri. Every well-educated breeder knows this.

These ‘sables’ have indeed a complete white head, but you can easily see the difference with a blue opaline Agapornis fischeri: an opaline has no (violet) rump colour and much larger white / grey tail spots. Some of them also give the impression that there are some small dark spots on the wings (caused by a limited eumelaninereduction on the edge of the feathers).


Acht weken geleden heeft de Raad van Bestuur van Ornitho-Genetics de knoop doorgehakt en werd besloten om een facebookpagina te openen (www.facebook.com/ogvzw). Ik moet toegeven dat ik daar niet echt een voorstander van was, maar er waren al een paar fakepagina’s op mijn naam en uiteindelijk stemde ik er mee in.
Ik hoopte van een 5.000 likes bij elkaar te halen, maar tot mijn grote verbazing ging het beter dan verwacht. De 5.000 likes waren daar binnen een paar dagen en de teller blijft maar verder tikken. Vandaag hebben we zelfs al meer dan 15.500 likes.
Daarom hartelijk dank aan iedereen voor de leuke reacties!!


We krijgen regelmatig vragen over het bl-locus, meer specifiek turquoise, bij agaporniden. Helaas is het voor ons nog te vroeg om daar duidelijke en correcte antwoorden op te geven.  Jullie moeten weten dat recent onderzoek het gen (MuPKS), verantwoordelijk voor de aanmaak van het gele psittacine bij grasparkieten [Melopsittacus undulatus] in kaart heeft gebracht. Dit werd reeds in november 2017 gemeld op ons blog. Uit dat onderzoek leren we dat één enkele SNP (wijziging in slechts één enkele base) verantwoordelijk is voor het totaal blokkeren van de aanmaak van psittacine, met andere woorden: de genetische oorzaak van de blauwe mutatie is gekend bij grasparkieten. Met deze kennis kunnen we nu binnen het genoom van Agapornis roseicollis ook op zoek gaan naar dit gen. Daarom wachten we liever deze resultaten af voor we meer tekst en info geven. Wordt met andere woorden, zoals steeds, vervolgt.

We received some questions on the bl-locus and the turquoise mutation in Agapornis species. But for us it is still too early days to drawn conclusions. In findings published in the journal Cell, scientists from California’s Stanford University identified an uncharacterised gene in budgerigars [Melopsittacus undulatus] that can synthesise unique yellow pigments (already mentioned on our blog in November 2017). They used genome-wide association mapping and gene-expression analysis to map the Mendelian blue locus, which abolishes yellow pigmentation in the budgerigar. They find that the blue trait maps to a single amino acid substitution (R644W) in an uncharacterised polyketide synthase (MuPKS). So blue budgies are the result of a single amino acid substitution in that gene. This knowledge can now be used to sequence the bl-locus in Agapornis. So let us hope it is just a matter of time before we will have accurate info in this subject.

Cooke, T. F., Fischer, C. R., Wu, P., Jiang, T.-X., Xie, K. T., Kuo, J., … Bustamante, C. D. (2017). Genetic Mapping and Biochemical Basis of Yellow Feather Pigmentation in Budgerigars. Cell, 171(2), 427–439.e21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2017.08.016

Inteelt – Inbreeding

Recent werden de bevindingen gepubliceerd van een onderzoek naar de gevolgen van inteelt.
Gedurende drie jaar werden de broedresultaten bestudeerd van volwassen kanaries [Serinus canaria] (vogels uit inteelt). Het onderzoek toonde duidelijk aan dat er inteeltdepressie (negatieve gevolgen) is bij het eierlegvermogen van de poppen, het succes van mannelijke bevruchting en het overleven van beide geslachten. Het jaarlijkse reproductieve succes van zowel mannetjes als vrouwtjes daalde zelfs nog in combinatie met een inteeltpartner, onafhankelijk van hun eigen inteeltstatus. Toch iets om eens ernstig over na te denken?

New research confirms the negative consequences of inbreeding.
Adult inbred and outbred male and female canaries [Serinus canaria] were paired in a 2 × 2 factorial design, and survival and annual reproductive performance were studied for 3 years. They found inbreeding depression in female egg-laying ability, male fertilization success and survival of both sexes. Annual reproductive success of both males and females declined when paired with an inbred partner independent of their own inbreeding status. I am sure this is something to think about.


Boer, R. A. de, Eens, M., & Müller, W. (2018). Sex-specific effects of inbreeding on reproductive senescence. Proc. R. Soc. B, 285(1879), 20180231. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.0231

O-G on facebook

Since there are a few fake facebook pages that use my name but are not mine and a lot of visitors asked us to publish an Ornitho-Genetics facebook page, the O-G board decided last week to publish an official Ornitho-Genetics Facebook page.
So from now on, you can visit us also on Facebook.


Aangezien er al een aantal fake Facebookprofielen van mij online zijn en we meermaals het verzoek gekregen hebben om ook via Facebook bereikbaar te zijn, heeft de Raad van Bestuur van Ornitho-Genetics vzw vorige week besloten om een officiële Facebookpagina voor O-G vzw te lanceren. Dus vanaf vandaag kunt u ons ook via dat kanaal bezoeken.

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